The MLA Handbook ninth edition was published in April 2021. The main differences between the eighth and ninth editions include:
Examples for citing different types of sources.
Instructions for formatting your paper in MLA style.
Learn how to create citations for your Works Cited page.
Look at examples from MLA for your Works Cited page.
Shows MLA formatting for all details of a research paper.
Guide to academic writing, including grammar, mechanics, and punctuation.
Author’s Last Name, Author’s First Name. “Title of Article with Proper Capitals.” Publication Title, volume, issue, Date, pages (if available). Database (if applicable). Complete URL without http (or DOI for scholarly journal articles). Date of access (optional)
Ferrigni, Lauren A. "The Use of Nanotechnology within the Solar Industry: A Sustainability Perspective." Jurimetrics: The Journal of Law, Science & Technology, vol. 54, no. 4, 2014, pp. 409-432. JSTOR. www.jstor.org/stable/24395699. Accessed 4 Apr. 2017.
Author(s). Title of Book. Edition, Publisher, Year. Database/Website Name, URL (if ebook).
Kaku, Michio. Hyperspace: A Scientific Odyssey Through Parallel Universes. Oxford UP, 1994.
Kerrigan, Peter, and Gordon Smith. The Idea of the Renaissance. Knopf, 1989. (Note: 3 or more authors is cited as first author followed by et al)
Sclafani, Mary, editor. Statistics for You. Gale Research, 2004.
Soto, Gary. “The Level at Which the Sky Begins.” The Norton Anthology of Latino Literature, edited by Ilan Stavans, W. W. Norton & Company, 2011, pp. 1928- 1929.
Last Name, First Name (if available). “Title of Webpage.” Title of Website. Publisher of Website (if different from website title), Date created or last updated. Complete URL without http. Date of access (optional).
Eisenberg, Jana “The Great Debate / Uber in Western New York.” Buffalo Spree, 1 Apr. 2017, www.buffalospree.com/Buffalo-Spree/April-2017/The-GreatDebate-Uber-in-Western-New-York/. Accessed 1 Apr. 2017.
The Buffalo History Museum. The Buffalo and Erie Co. Historical Society, 2017, www.buffalohistory.org/. Accessed 1 Apr. 2017.
Title of image or your own description of the image. Digital Image. Title of the website where it was published (not google!). Date it was published (if you know it). URL.
Elephant next to a car. Digital image. The London Telegraph. 13 May 2008, //www.telegraph.co.uk/jkhfds/image.
Use parenthetical citation to cite outside sources in your text. The page number of your outside sources should always be included in the parenthetical citation. The author’s name may appear in the parentheses or in the sentence itself.
For sources with two authors, list the authors’ names in the text or in the parenthetical citation.
For sources with three or more authors, list the first authors name and replace the additional names with et al.
For a source with no known author, use a shortened title of the resource in the parenthetical citation.
While it is always best to find original sources, if you must use an indirect source, which is a source cited in another source, used “qtd. in” to indicate the source you consulted.
For Internet Sources, use the authors names if available or shortened title if not. Page numbers are not required.