A decennial Census for the purpose of Congressional reapportionment is mandated by the U.S. Constitution. The first Census was held in 1790 and counted only heads of household. Over time, the Census has expanded to count every person in the U.S., including information on their age, race, ethnicity and more. While there may be portions of the population that go uncounted, it is the closest we have to complete demographic and economic data on the U.S. population.
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